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Research News

Nitrogen Balance

By Sandco Staff

The sensitivity of Nitrogen balance to changes in energy intake has been demonstrated in numerous studies. It is well known that when diet provides adequate amounts of protein the addition of energy-yielding nutrients (either carbohydrate or fat) results in a linear improvement in N balance in humans and animals (Munro, 1951, 1964, 1978; Inoue et al. 1973; Garza et al. 1976; Reeds et al. 1981). However, the underlying biochemical mechanism whereby energy intake above requirements affects N metabolism in long-term studies remains obscure.



Munro, H. N. (1951). Carbohydrate and fat as factors in protein utilization and metabolism. Physiological Reviews 31, 449488.
Munro, H. N. (1964). General aspects of the regulation of protein metabolism by diet and by hormones. In Mammalian Protein Metabolism, vol. 1, pp. 381481 [H. N. Munro and J. B. Allison, editors]. New York:
Academic Press.
Munro, H. N. (1978). Energy and protein intakes as determinants of nitrogen balance. Kidney International 14, 313-316.
Inoue, G., Fujita, Y. & Niiyama, Y. (1973). Studies on protein requirements of young men fed egg protein and rice protein with excess and maintenance energy intakes. Journal of Nutrition 103, 1673-1687.

Garza, C., Scrimshaw, N. S. & Young, V. R. (1976). Human protein requirements: the effect of variations in energy intake within the maintenance range. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 29, 28G287
Reeds, P. J., Fuller, M. F., Cadenhead, A,, Lobley, G. E. & McDonald, J. D. (1981). Effects of changes in the intakes of protein and non-protein energy on whole-body protein turnover in growing pigs. British Journal of Nutrition 45, 539-546.