Archive for the ‘Sleep’ Category

WESTCHESTER, Ill. – Athletes who get an extra amount of sleep are more likely to improve their performance in a game, according to a research abstract presented at the 21st Annual Meeting of the Associated Professional Sleep Societies (APSS).

The study, authored by Cheri Mah of Stanford University, was conducted on six healthy students on the Stanford men’s basketball team, who maintained their typical sleep-wake patterns for a two-week baseline followed by an extended sleep period in which they obtained as much extra sleep as possible. To assess improvements in athletic performance, the students were judged based on their sprint time and shooting percentages.

Significant improvements in athletic performance were observed, including faster sprint time and increased free-throws. Athletes also reported increased energy and improved mood during practices and games, as well as a decreased level of fatigue.

“Although much research has established the detrimental effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive function, mood and performance, relatively little research has investigated the effects of extra sleep over multiple nights on these variables, and even less on the specific relationship between extra sleep and athletic performance. This study illuminated this latter relationship and showed that obtaining extra sleep was associated with improvements in indicators of athletic performance and mood among members of the men’s basketball team.”

The amount of sleep a person gets affects his or her physical health, emotional well-being, mental abilities, productivity and performance. Recent studies associate lack of sleep with serious health problems such as an increased risk of depression, obesity, cardiovascular disease and diabetes.
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Article adapted by MD Sports from original press release.
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Contact: Jim Arcuri
American Academy of Sleep Medicine 

Experts recommend that adults get between seven and eight hours of sleep each night to maintain good health and optimum performance.

Persons who think they might be suffering from a sleep disorder are encouraged to consult with their primary care physician, who will refer them to a sleep specialist.

The annual SLEEP meeting brings together an international body of 5,000 leading researchers and clinicians in the field of sleep medicine to present and discuss new findings and medical developments related to sleep and sleep disorders.

More than 1,000 research abstracts will be presented at the SLEEP meeting, a joint venture of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and the Sleep Research Society. The four-day scientific meeting will bring to light new findings that enhance the understanding of the processes of sleep and aid the diagnosis and treatment of sleep disorders such as insomnia, narcolepsy and sleep apnea.

Neuroscience researchers at the Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School in Singapore have shown for the first time what happens to the visual perceptions of healthy but sleep-deprived volunteers who fight to stay awake, like people who try to drive through the night.

The scientists found that even after sleep deprivation, people had periods of near-normal brain function in which they could finish tasks quickly. However, this normalcy mixed with periods of slow response and severe drops in visual processing and attention, according to their paper, published in the Journal of Neuroscience on May 21.

“Interestingly, the team found that a sleep-deprived brain can normally process simple visuals, like flashing checkerboards. But the ‘higher visual areas’ – those that are responsible for making sense of what we see – didn’t function well,” said Dr. Michael Chee, lead author and professor at the Neurobehavioral Disorders Program at Duke-NUS. “Herein lies the peril of sleep deprivation.”

The research team, including colleagues at the University of Michigan and University of Pennsylvania, used magnetic resonance imaging to measure blood flow in the brain during speedy normal responses and slow “lapse” responses. The study was funded by grants from the DSO National Laboratories in Singapore, the National Institutes of Health, the National Institute on Drug Abuse, the NASA Commercialization Center, and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

Study subjects were asked to identify letters flashing briefly in front of them. They saw either a large H or S, and each was made up of smaller Hs or Ss. Sometimes the large letter matched the smaller letters; sometimes they didn’t. Scientists asked the volunteers to identify either the smaller or the larger letters by pushing one of two buttons.

During slow responses, sleep-deprived volunteers had dramatic decreases in their higher visual cortex activity. At the same time, as expected, their frontal and parietal ‘control regions’ were less able to make their usual corrections.

Scientists also could see brief failures in the control regions during the rare lapses that volunteers had after a normal night’s sleep. However, the failures in visual processing were specific only to lapses that occurred during sleep deprivation.

The scientists theorize that this sputtering along of cognition during sleep deprivation shows the competing effects of trying to stay awake while the brain is shutting things down for sleep. The brain ordinarily becomes less responsive to sensory stimuli during sleep, Chee said.

This study has implications for a whole range of people who have to struggle through night work, from truckers to on-call doctors. “The periods of apparently normal functioning could give a false sense of competency and security when in fact, the brain’s inconsistency could have dire consequences,” Chee said.

“The study task appeared simple, but as we showed in previous work, you can’t effectively memorize or process what you see if your brain isn’t capturing that information,” Chee said. “The next step in our work is to see what we might do to improve things, besides just offering coffee, now that we have a better idea where the weak links in the system are.”

 

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Article adapted by MD Sports from original press release.
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Contact: Mary Jane Gore
Duke University Medical Center

Other authors of the study include Jiat Chow Tan, Hui Zheng, and Sarayu Parimal of the Cognitive Neuroscience Lab at the Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School; Daniel Weissman of the University of Michigan Psychology Department; David Dinges of the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine; and Vitali Zagorodnov of the Computer Engineering Department of the Nanyang Technological University in Singapore.

To celebrate Allied Health Professions Week, the National Athletic Trainers’ Association has prepared a 10-step guide that people of all ages can use to reduce body stress, prevent back pain and thereby improve quality of life – especially with holiday plans and travel just around the corner. Along with the season comes the lifting of heavy suitcases and holiday gifts that can put additional pressure on the back. NATA represents certified athletic trainers who are among the more than 80 professions being honored during Allied Health Professions Week (Nov. 4-10, 2007).

“The human body is an incredible machine that adapts to the stresses we give it every day,” said certified athletic trainer Darrell Barnes, LAT, ATC, CSCS, performance center coordinator, St. Vincent Sports Performance Center in Indianapolis, Ind. “Stresses such as poor posture, unusual movement or activities or even a sedentary lifestyle can lead to poor mechanics and pain. Disability from back pain is second only to the common cold as a cause of lost work time.”

According to the Arthritis Foundation, back pain affects 80 percent of the adult population at some point in their lives. In fact, back pain, limited mobility and stiffness end up costing American consumers $24 billion in treatment costs annually.

Following are recommendations to prevent and reduce back pain now and year-round:

1. Identify negative stresses that may be exacerbated by the holidays – Everybody has physical limitations that can lead to body imbalances, so it’s important to identify problematic areas and correct these imbalances. Look at your sitting/standing posture. Do you complain that your muscles “feel tight” or weak? Do you use poor mechanics when lifting heavy items? Are you putting unusual stress on the back with certain activities and lifting during the holiday season? Learning correct lifting techniques and strengthening your back can help to alleviate pain. Use a luggage cart or lighten your load when lifting heavy packages or luggage.

2. Make yourself mobile – Poor posture and muscle stiffness decrease the body’s ability to move freely, which can lead to injury or pain. There are many ways to increase mobility including daily stretches or activities that increase flexibility and get the body moving in different directions. Try yoga, tai chi, swimming or pilates to keep you limber.

3. Increase strength – It’s important to get strong to improve overall balance and flexibility to reduce stress on the back. Exercises should involve the whole body, especially the core muscles of the stomach, back, hips and pelvis. At the same time, strengthening of the legs and shoulders can help you more easily squat, lift and carry even heavy items without overworking or injuring your back.

4. Add aerobic exercise – Physical activities like walking, swimming and running for at least 20 minutes three times a week increases muscular endurance and cardiovascular fitness. Aerobic activities also improve blood flow to the spine and help decrease daily stress.

5. Pay attention to posture – Try not to sit or drive for long periods of time. Get up every 15 to 30 minutes and move around or stretch to increase your mobility. When seated always remember to keep your hips and knees at right angles to one another and find a chair with adequate lumbar (lower back) support.

6. Stand up straight – When engaged in activities while standing, be sure to stand with your head up, shoulders straight, chest forward and stomach tight. Avoid standing in the same position for too long, though, and use your legs – rather than your back – when pushing or pulling heavy doors and other items.

7. Use proper lifting mechanics – When lifting objects from a position below your waist, stand with a wide stance and a slight bend at your hips and knees. Tighten your stomach as you lift and keep your back as flat as possible – do not arch or bend. When carrying heavy objects, keep them as close to your body as you can. Avoid carrying objects on only one side of your body.

8. Get a good night’s sleep – Select a firm mattress and box spring that does not sag. Try to sleep in a position that allows you to maintain the natural curve in your back.

9. Warm-up before physical activity – Engage in a low impact activity prior to playing sports or exercising. Increasing muscle temperature and mobility will decrease the chance of injury.

10. Improve your healthy lifestyle – Obesity and smoking have been found to increase the incidence of back pain. Taking steps to improve your health will decrease the chance of back pain and improve your overall quality of life.

Barnes also urges people to always listen to their bodies: “If you are participating in any fitness routines or general activity and feel any twinges of back pain, you should stop immediately and consult your physician. Identifying the cause of the pain and treating it safely and appropriately will help you gain back mobility and range of motion and feel your physical best.”

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Article adapted by MD Only Weblog from original press release.
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Contact: Robin Waxenberg 
National Athletic Trainers’ Association

About the National Athletic Trainers’ Association (NATA)

Athletic trainers are unique health care providers who specialize in the prevention, assessment, treatment and rehabilitation of injuries and illnesses. The National Athletic Trainers’ Association represents and supports 30,000 members of the athletic training profession through education and research. Only 42 percent of high schools have access to athletic trainers. NATA advocates for equal access to athletic trainers for athletes and patients of all ages, and supports H.R. 1846.