Archive for May 7, 2009

            Products Related


 Hi-5 Energy Drink – High Carbohydrate Formula

Quantity Price Savings
70 sev $39.95 $10.00
210 sev $99.85 $50.00
420 sev $179.70 $120


Research News

Bethesda, MD – A visit to the meat counter at any supermarket is proof positive that a good number of Americans are avoiding carbohydrates and consuming high levels of protein and fat, in accordance with the Atkins diet. This carbohydrate-free, fat- and protein- rich diet is for those seeking immediate weight loss, which means most of us.But what do others, such as weight lifters and callisthenic enthusiasts, do about carbohydrates? Their goal is muscle preservation and strengthening, but for years, different theories have been offered about the effectiveness of carbohydrates in maintaining an appropriate muscle protein balance. A new study may lead to a truce in the debate at the nation’s gymnasiums, and those dedicated to resistance training may finally have an answer as to whether carbohydrates have a positive role in muscle development.


Resistance exercise — also called strength training — increases muscle strength and mass, bone strength, and the body’s metabolism. The different methods for resistance training include free weights, weight machines, calisthenics and resistance tubing. When using free weights, dumbbells, and bars stacked with weight plates, you are responsible for both lifting the weight and determining and controlling your body position through the range of motion.

The body’s net muscle protein balance (i.e., the difference between muscle protein synthesis and protein breakdown) generally remains negative in the recovery period after resistance exercise in the absence of nutrient intake, i.e., the muscle’s protein is breaking down complex chemical compounds to simpler ones. However, it has been demonstrated that infusion or ingestion of amino acids after resistance exercise stimulates muscle protein synthesis. Furthermore, as little as six grams of essential amino acids (EAA) alone effectively stimulates net protein synthesis after a strenuous resistance exercise session.

The body’s response to the six grams of EAA does not appear to differ when 35 grams of carbohydrates are added. This reflects the uncertainty of the independent effects of carbohydrates on muscle protein metabolism after resistance exercise. Additionally, it is unclear how carbohydrate intake causes changes of net protein balance between synthesis and breakdown and how it relates to changes in plasma insulin concentration.

Interpretation of the response of muscle protein to insulin is complicated by the fact that a systemic increase in insulin concentration causes a fall in plasma amino acid concentrations, and this reduced amino acid availability could potentially counteract a direct effect of insulin on synthesis. A past study found that the normal postexercise increase in muscle protein breakdown was slowed by insulin, thus improving net muscle protein balance. However, whereas local infusion of insulin may effectively isolate the effect of insulin per se, the response may differ from when insulin release is stimulated by ingestion of carbohydrates.

A New Study

Accordingly, a new study set out to investigate the independent effect of carbohydrate intake on muscle protein net balance during recovery from resistance exercise. The authors of “Effect Of Carbohydrate Intake on Net Muscle Protein Synthesis During Recovery from Resistance Exercise,” are Elisabet Børsheim, Melanie G. Cree, Kevin D. Tipton, Tabatha A. Elliott, Asle Aarsland, and Robert R. Wolfe, all from the Department of Surgery, Metabolism Unit, Shriners Hospitals for Children-Galveston, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX. Their findings appeared in the February 2004 edition of the Journal of Applied Physiology. The journal is one of 14 peer-reviewed scientific journals published each month by the American Physiological Society (


Sixteen recreationally active and healthy subjects took part in the study. At least one week before an experiment, subjects were familiarized with the exercise protocol, and their one repetition maximum, a maximum weight possible with a leg extension, was determined. The subjects were assigned to one of two groups: carbohydrate group (CHO; n = 8) or placebo group (n = 8). Subjects were instructed not to exercise for at least 48 hours before an experiment, not to use tobacco or alcohol during the 24 h before an experiment, and not to make any changes in their dietary habits.

The two groups of eight subjects performed a resistance exercise bout (10 sets of eight repetitions of leg presses at 80 percent of one repetition maximum) before they rested in bed for four hours. One group (CHO) received a drink consisting of 100 grams of carbohydrates one hour after exercise; the placebo group received a noncaloric placebo drink. Leg amino acid metabolism was determined by infusion of 2H5- or 13C6-labeled phenylalanine, sampling from femoral artery and vein, and muscle biopsies from vastus lateralis, the lateral head of quadriceps muscle of anterior (extensor) compartment of thigh.


Key findings of the study included: 

  • Plasma glucose concentration was significantly increased in the carbohydrate group until 210 min after intake of drink. 
  • Plasma concentration of insulin reflected the changes in glucose concentration. The drink intake did not affect arterial insulin concentration in the placebo group, whereas arterial insulin increased by several times after the drink in the CHO group. 
  • Arterial phenylalanine (a common amino acid in proteins) concentration did not change after intake of drink in the placebo group but decreased and stabilized in the CHO group. 
  • Net muscle protein balance between synthesis and breakdown did not change in the placebo group but improved in the CHO group during the second and third hour after the drink. The improved net balance in the CHO group was due primarily to a progressive decrease in muscle protein breakdown.


This study is the first to compare net muscle protein balance (protein synthesis minus breakdown) after carbohydrate ingestion with control after exercise. The principal finding was that intake of 100 grams of carbohydrates after resistance exercise improved muscle net protein balance.

The findings from this research demonstrate that carbohydrates intake alone can improve net protein balance between synthesis and breakdown. In this work, the gradual improvement in net muscle protein balance after carbohydrate intake was due principally to a progressive reduction in breakdown. However, the improvement was small compared with previous findings after intake of amino acids or amino acids and carbohydrates.

The researchers conclude that intake of carbohydrates alone after resistance exercise will modestly improve the anabolic effect of exercise. However, amino acid intake is necessary for a maximal response, one desired by most participating in resistance exercise programs.


Article adapted by Sports Performance Research from original press release.


Contact: Donna Krupa

American Physiological Society 

Source: Journal of Applied Physiology. The journal is one of 14 peer-reviewed scientific journals published each month by the American Physiological Society (

The American Physiological Society (APS) was founded in 1887 to foster basic and applied science, much of it relating to human health. The Bethesda, MD-based Society has more than 10,000 members and publishes 3,800 articles in its 14 peer-reviewed journals every year.

Governor Sonny Perdue signed a proclamation recognizing May as Exercise is Medicine Month in Georgia. Exercise is Medicine is a national program, founded by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) with The Coca-Cola Company, which encourages consumers to speak with their doctors about an appropriate level of exercise, plan their exercise regimen, track it and stick to it.

Increased daily exercise can prevent diabetes and cardiovascular disease in obese women, but getting started and maintaining new habits is a challenge. A new study by researchers at the Swedish medical university Karolinska Institutet shows that extra support and encouragement can help more women to exercise to and from work.

Millions of children in schools across the globe will walk, jog, bike or play games on May 6 as a part of Project ACES (All Children Exercise Simultaneously) Day. This Youth Fitness Coalition (YFC) signature program, in partnership with American College of Sports Medicine ‘s

Sportsmen and women could get the edge on their opponents by accepting more emotional support in their personal and professional lives. A study by the University of Exeter, published in the Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, shows the extent to which a sympathetic ear or regular words of encouragement can improve sports performance. Previous studies by the University of Exeter have linked ‘social support’ to performance in golf and other sports.

As most runners know, aches and pains are a common part of training. However, according to a study published in the May/June issue of Sports Health: A Multidisciplinary Approach, the real culprit for overuse running injuries, such as patellofemoral pain syndrome, iliotibial band syndrome, and Achilles tendonitis may have more to do with weakened hip muscles than how many miles run.

The summer is fast approaching and sports players will soon fill the courts, fields, greens and trails looking to get back in shape and practice their game. However, this also means there are plenty of opportunities for cuts and bruises, ankle sprains, muscle strains, and knee injuries, to name a few. Dr. William Levine, chief of sports medicine at NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital/Columbia University Medical Center, and Dr. Anil S.

The National Sports Fun Day is a free event open to the public to show that children with congenital heart defects can take part in sports activities alongside their able-bodied brothers, sisters and friends. It takes place on the 16th May 2009 11am-3:30pm at Weston Park, Shifnal, West Midlands.

As National Correct Posture Month, May is the perfect time to focus on keeping your spine healthy. University of the Sciences in Philadelphia’s Assistant Professor of Physical Therapy Dr. Greg Thielman offers simple exercises and solutions to improve your posture and avoid a lifetime of aches and pains. Posture is the position in which you hold your body upright against gravity while standing, sitting or laying down.

The summer is a great season for getting in shape, whether by playing a sport, an aerobic exercise routine, or just returning to that familiar running path — this is the time for activity. However, exercising during the warmest season of the year can lead to dehydration, profuse sweating, exhaustion, and even to a cardiac event. Dr. Holly Andersen, director of education and outreach at the Ronald O.